We comply with current standards and procedures for steel dimensioning as set out in EN 1990 Eurocode, and we are certified to EN ISO 3834-2 and DIN 188800-7 EN1090, as well as iso-9001 certification.
We use the recommended safety factors and combinations, including load calculations, etc. when dimensioning.
Unless otherwise specified in national annexes to Eurocodes, for example, we always use EXC 2.
EN 1991-1-4 is used for wind loads
EN 1998-1 EN 1998-1 Design of structures for earthquake resistance, part 1. General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings.
EN 1993-1-2-3 Steel frames, towers, masts, etc.
EN ISO 14122-2,3 and 4 Working platforms, stairs and guardrails, etc.
EN 13084-1,6,7 Standards for chimneys.
BR 10 – Building Regulations 2010 for housing. (Now BR 15) - fire, disability, escape routes, staircases and guardrails.
Stairs, stepladders and railings that are part of a machine.
Stairs are in principle horizontal landings that make it possible to move upwards/downwards on foot, and the riser (the distance between two steps) shall, as far as possible, be constant and shall not exceed 45 degrees, but it shall meet the formula 600 ≥ g + 2h ≤ 660 mm.
The minimum step depth (t) is 80 mm and the rise from one step to the next shall not be greater than (h) 250 mm. The clear width (w) shall be at least 600 mm, while the preferred width is 800 mm. If several people use the stairs at the same time, it shall be at least 1000 mm wide.
The overlap (r) of the step or the landing shall be max. 10 mm ( t – g )
The uppermost step shall be level with the landing – this is to reduce the risk of falls on the stairs.
The climbing height (H) of individual flights shall not exceed 3000 mm, otherwise a landing is deemed necessary before continuing on to another flight. The length of the landing (I) shall be at least 800 mm. In the case of a single flight, the climbing height shall not exceed 4000 mm
Ladders shall have a resting platform (600 mm x 600 mm) for every 6 m (H), if the ladder is only rarely used (chimneys), the distance between rest platforms can be up to 15 m. The same applies to ladders with sliding rail and fall protection.
The handrail provides protection against accidental falls or accidental access to dangerous areas, such as stairs, stepladders, landings or platforms, and walkways may be fitted with one. When the height of the possible fall exceeds 500 mm, a handrail shall be installed. The handrail shall be designed in such a manner as to eliminate any risk of harm caused by sharp edges of the product or by catching of the user's clothing.
The structural requirements used in the industry range from 1.5 kN/m2 for light traffic up to 5 kN/m2 for heavy traffic with load.
The height of the handrail shall be at least 1100 mm on horizontal platforms, landings and the like.
For flights of stairs, the height shall be between 900 mm and 1000 mm.
Below this, parallel to the handrail, a knee rail is located, primarily to protect against falling, max. 500 mm below the handrail. When vertical uprights are used instead of a knee rail, the clear horizontal distance between those uprights shall be max. 180 mm.
On the vertical part of the handrail, the rail posts are placed, anchoring the handrail to the stairs or the platform/landing. A toe-plate with a minimum upstand of 100 mm shall be placed 10 mm maximum from the walking level and the edge of the platform to ensure that objects cannot fall.
Permanent means of access between two levels of machinery
Permanent means of access consist of ladders (75 degrees to 90 degrees), stepladders (45 degrees to 75 degrees), stairs (20 degrees to 45 degrees) as well as ramps (0-20 degrees).
It shall be safe and secure to use the means of access, with the lowest possible risk of falling, slipping and tripping as well as minimal risk from the considerable physical effort of climbing a series of ladders.
If the ladder is only rarely used, rest platforms are required every 15 m, as well as safety rings or fall protection. In this context, it should be stressed that fall protection offered by a personal harness is better at stopping a fall than safety rings.
Frequently used ladders must have a resting platform of 600 x 600 mm for each 6 m.
Working platforms and walkways to machinery
If perforated floor plates are used, the diameter of the openings shall not exceed 35 mm if the floor plates are located where people do not normally walk. If in an area where people normally walk, the maximum diameter is 20 mm, which is measured so that a sphere with a diameter of 20 mm cannot pass through it.
A working platform is a flat surface used for operation, maintenance, measurement and the like.
Generally speaking, the surface coating of the floor shall be slip resistant. The clear width of a walkway shall be at least 600 mm and is recommended to be a maximum of 800 mm. .
Danish building regulations apply to residential building, see links below.
The general rule applying to shared means of access in residential buildings is that they must be of a sufficient width for the intended use, with unhindered passing possible in their full width.
A width of 1.5 metres is sufficient for a walking-impaired person to be accompanied by a companion. (Measured horizontally between the handrails)
A width of 1.8 metres is sufficient for frequent traffic in both directions on the same staircase (measured horizontally between the handrails)
A width of 0.9 m can be accepted as an absolute minimum if there are only a few users (e.g. in two-family houses).
There must be handrails in both directions at a height of around 800 mm above the nosing.
Free heights and rises, etc. – See building regulations.
The minimum height of guardrails or railings shall be at least 1.0 m.